Track Cloven hearts, much larger and rounder than those of White-tailed Deer or Mule Deer; somewhat smaller and rounder than those of Moose; 4–4 1/2" (100–115 mm) long. When walking, hindprints slightly ahead of and partly overlapping foreprints; stride 30–60" (750–1,500 mm). When running and bounding, foreprints and hindprints are separate; stride up to 14' (4.25 m). In snow or mud, dewclaws often print behind lobed main prints.
Sign During the rut, thrashed saplings and large shrubs; "rubs" on saplings and small trees made as the male polishes his antlers.
Wallows: Depressions dug in ground by hooves and antlers, where copious urine and feces give a strong, musky odor.
Scat: When feeding in lush pastures in summer and early fall, flattened chips similar to dung of domestic cattle; in winter, when chief foods are dried grasses and browse, dark pellets similar to deer scat but larger, sometimes more than 1" (25 mm) long.