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Toad toxins

I took a small Am. toad into my h.s. biology class for students to observe. One student asked how toads are able to manufacture toxins - do they obtain the ingredients from their diet like poison arrow frogs do. I'm you know how they make their poison and its source?

Wildlife Expert - Ken Burton

As far as we know, poisonous frogs in general acquire their toxins from their diet. These toxins are called alkaloids and are produced mainly by plants and insects (which are ingested by frogs, which then incorporate the alkaloids). So, toads do not manufacture their toxins, they acquire them.

Just two years ago, it was reported that an Australian frog is able to manufacture its own alkaloids. That species is, to my knowledge, the only vertebrate known to manufacture poison.

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American Toad
Bufo americanus

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